The game originated in northern India in the sixth century AD and spread to Persia.
When the Arabs conquered Persia, the Muslim world used chess, and then, with the conquest of Spain by the Moorish, it spread to southern Europe. But in the early days of Russia, the game came directly from the Khantes (Muslim territory) to the south. In Europe, the movement of pieces changed in the 15th century. The modern game begins with these changes.
Modern competition began in the late 19th century.
The first chess clocks were used in 1883, and the first World Chess Tournament was held in 1886.
The 20th century saw the advancement of chess theory and the founding of the World Chess Federation (FIDE).
Chess engines (chess playing programs), and chess databases became important. game stages
550 AD: North West India
600AD: The first clear reference to chess, a description of chess in a Persian manuscript, came from India to Persia (Iran).
700AD: The date of the first undisputed chess piece. AD 800AD: The Moors bring chess to Spain and Sicily.
900AD: Early Muslim Chess Masters, Es-Suli and Al-Lajlaj write on Chess Techniques.
1000AD: Chess spread to Europe including Russia.
1300AD: The First European Commentary on Chess in Discourses and Stories.
1475-1500AD: The birth of the modern game: in particular, new moves for the queen and bishop.
1495: The first printed book of chess.
1497: The first printed chess book to survive.
1600: The first professional player-writer.
1780: The first master game will be recorded as played.
1836: First Chess Journal.
1849: First US chess tournament.
1851: First international chess tournament.
1866: First clockwise match.
1883: The first competition using specially designed chess clocks.
1886: First World Championship match.
1927: First Chess Olympiad organized by FIDE.
1960: Numerical rating of players becomes standard.
Origin of the game
Chess’s predecessors originated during the Gupta Empire in northern India, where its earliest form was known as Chaturanga in the sixth century. It is translated as ‘four divisions’, meaning infantry, cavalry, elephant and chariot, which are represented by the pieces that evolved into modern infantry, knights, bishops and rooks respectively.
In Sassanid Persia about 600 were named Chatranga and the rules were further developed and the players started saying Shah! (Persian for ‘king’) Threatening the rival king, and the Shah’s opinion! (Persian for ‘the king is gone’) When the king could not survive the attack. These exclamations survived in chess as they traveled to other countries. The game was taken over by the Muslim world after the Islamists’ conquest of Persia, with these pieces retaining their Persian names; In Arabic, “Mat” or “mother” مَاتَ means “death”, “dead.” The game became chess in Arabic. In all other languages the name of the game comes from chess or shah.
The Arabic names of the pieces changed several centuries after the game arrived in Europe. The most commonly replaced are fragments that did not have equivalents in Europe, such as the elephant, the vizier (consultant: firzan or vizier), and the chariot (Rukhkh). The greatest variation of the name was for elephants, which did not appear in Europe and was therefore not used in warfare. Names derived from the Arabic language have survived for centuries in Spain (Alfil, Offine, Orfil…) Eventually, everyone except France used the word “bishop”. Similarly, the vizier eventually became the “queen” and the chariot became the word “fort”. Except, in English, where “rook” is clearly a variant of “stance”.
Europe and the East
The sport reached Western Europe and Russia in at least three ways, the oldest dating from the 9th century. By the year 1000, it had spread throughout Europe. The Moors brought it to the Iberian Peninsula in the 10th century, as described in a famous 13th-century manuscript called Libro de los Jugos. Buddhist pilgrims, traders of the Silk Road, and others took it to the Far East, where it was turned into a game played at the intersection of board lines, not squares. Chinese chess and shogi are the most important forms of oriental chess. However, these changes took place in medieval Europe that led to our modern game.